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Software Engineering Resources

Requirements Engineering
Requirements engineering helps software engineers to better understand the problem they will work to solve. It encompasses the set of tasks that lead to an understanding of what the business impact of the software will be, what the customer wants and how end-users will interact with the software. The following topic categories are presented:

Analysis Concepts

Requirements Engineering Resources

Tutorials, Articles, and Papers

Requirement Elicitation

Requirements Management

Requirements Patterns

Requirements Tools


Analysis Concepts

Requirements Engineering Key Practices
A worthwhile paper by Karl Wiegers. Recommended.

Requirements analysis overview
A comprehensive introduction at Wikipedia

Five common errors in requirements analysis (and how to avoid them)
Discussed ways requirements analysis tasks fail.

Introduction to Requirements Analysis
Considers rationale for analysis, use cases, capturing business requirements, methods, and the key principles of bsiness-driven development.

13 common objections against user requirements analysis, and why you should not believe them
"Explains that before designing an interactive solution, you have to understand the problem."

User Requirements Analysis
An article that stresses that "requirement analysis is the foundation of a user-centered approach, creating products that appeal and meet user needs."

Characteristics of a Good Software Requirements Specification
A useful checklist that defines a high quality SRS.

Analysis Fables
Vicki Sauter has created a number of enjoyable "fables" that each imparts an analysis lesson.

Requirements Engineering Resources

Requirements Engineering Resources -1
A worthwhile collection of requirements engineering links has been prepared by Ian Sommerville and Peter Sawyer to accompany their book on the subject.

Requirements Engineering Resources - 2
Pointers to sites that address RE topics.

Requirements Analysis Resources
Links to a variety of requirements analysis resources.

The QFD Institute
The QFD institute is an good source for information and resources on quality function deployment.

Tutorials, Articles, and Papers

Papers on Requirements Engineering
A collection of on-line papers on requirements has been prepared by the staff of Compliance Automation, Inc.

Making Requirements Management Work for You
Al Davis and Dean Leffing have prepared a reasonably detailed paper on requirements management and related issues well.

Software prototyping tutorial and example
A worthwhile example of prototyping for a "spell check" function is presented in tutorial format.

Requirements Engineering Bibliography - 1
Another extensive requirements engineering and management bibliography.

Requirements Engineering Bibliography - 2
A list of requirements engineering books compiler by Karl Wiegers.

Requirements Engineering Resources
Links to RE rsources provided by DACS.

When Telepathy Won't Do: Requirements Engineering Key Practices
An article by expert Karl Wiegers.

Requirements Engineering: Thesis Research
A list of 21 PhD dissertations on RE with abstracts.

pdf: Requirements Engineering: A Roadmap
"This paper presents an overview of the field of software systems requirements engineering (RE). It describes the main areas of RE practice, and highlights some key open research issues for the future."

Requirements Engineering: Our Best Practices
"This article focuses on a methodology adopted during a requirements and functional specification phase of a project. The chosen model for requirements engineering was founded on a combination of six sigma techniques and a set of best practices adopted from within the organization."

pdf: What is Requirements Engineering?
An reasonably detailed paper on the subject.

Requirements Engineering Explained
A commentary on RE.

Should You Care About Requirements Engineering?
A worthwhile discussion and commentary.

Christof Ebert on Requirements Engineering
A podcast on the subject.

Requirements Engineering Papers
A list of downloadable RE papers.

Requirements Analysis Process: Requirements Elicitation, Analysis And Specification
Requirement engineering from the point of view of an outsourcing organization.

Business Analysis White Papers
Papers with a distinct business-oriented feel.

Managing Requirements Engineering Risks
A downloadable paper that "reviews the software development and requirements engineering literature to understand the risks that characterize requirement engineering situations, to classify available techniques to resolve these risks, and to identify key principles by which tactics can be applied to resolve requirements risks."

Questioning the Role of Requirements Engineering in the Causes of Safety-Critical Software Failures
A downloadable paper that "identifies some of the problems that have arisen from an undue focus on the role of requirements engineering in the causes of major accidents."

pdf: Goal-Oriented Requirements Engineering: A Guided Tour
"Goal-oriented requirements engineering is concerned with the use of goals for eliciting, elaborating, structuring, specifying, analyzing, negotiating, documenting, and modifying requirements."

Goal Driven Requirements Engineering Overview
A detailed discussion of the goal-driven RE approach.

Video: Requirements Engineering / Specification
A lecture on the subject (56:39)

Requirement Elicitation

Issues in Requirements Elicitation
An in-depth report by the SEI provides useful information of elicitation techniques. Can be downloaded.

User Involvement in Requirements Engineering
An in-depth paper by Daniela Herlea address all important aspects of requirement elicitation and related subject. Recommended.

Negotiation Skills
A collection of articles on negotiating skills which can be of use to any project manager who must communicate with upper management, the customer, or members of the software team.

Joint Applications Design
A detailed discussion of this requirements elicitation method is presented.

Recommended Requirements Gathering Practices
"This article provides suggested conditions for performing requirements gathering and recommended requirements gathering practices."

Issues in Requirements Elicitation
A dated but still worthwhile report of elicitation. Downloadable.

Requirements Elicitation Introduction
A detailed collection of articles and comments prepared for DHS. Recommended.

Preferred Requirements Gathering Techniques
A brief overview of important techniques.

Capturing stakeholder needs using visual thinking tools
A collection of brief articles and comments.

Projects Without Borders: Gathering Requirements on a Multi-Cultural Project
Worthwhile guidelines for a problem that is becoming increasingly common in the software world. Recommended.

A Requirements Elicitation Approach Based in Templates and Patterns
Discusses the use of patterns to elicit requirements. Downloadable.

pdf: A Methodology for Reducing Geographical Dispersion Problems during Global Requirements Elicitation
A cross-cultural methodology is introduced.

Software Requirements Elicitation Checklist
A worthwhile checklist for elicitation.

Neither Gathering Nor Eliciting, It is Discovering Requirements
A commentary on our perception of elicitation.

Pdf: Gathering Requirements: Go Away Please!
Still another look at requirements elicitation.

pdf: Requirements Elicitation Using a Combination of Prototypes and Scenarios
A survey of different types of prototypes and current prototyping methods and tools is presented.

pdf: Requirements gathering presentation
A short, but worthwhile Powerpoint presentation.

Requirements Management

Requirements management
A useful overview at Wikipedia

Requirements Management
A description from the SEI CMM.

Requirements Management Zone
"Information and Resources for Requirements Management and Requirements Reuse"

Requirements Management Resources
Links to a varity of tools, articles and other resources.

Practical information about requirements management
Very brief, but worthwhile guidelines.

Better Requirements Management Means Better Business
An article in Software Magazine.

Software Requirements Management
A brief commentary on the subject.

Requirements Management Articles
A list of RM articles with a project management feel.

Requirements Management to the Rescue
A brief overview of the process and the benefits.

Using a Repository for Agile Requirements Collaboration
Discusses the use of the repository as a pimary tool for RM.

Agile Requirements Change Management
A useful article by Scott Ambler.

Requirements Management as a Matter of Communication
An article that discusses the stakeholder "dialog" that occurs as RM is conducted.

Automating Requirements Management
An article discussing the impact of tools by Karl Wiegers.

INCOSE Requirements Management Tools Survey
Presents an excellent matrix of features and functions. Recommended.

Requirements Management Tools-I
Pointer to a wide array of requirements management tools.

Requirements Management Tools-II
Links to RM vendors.

Video: Requirements Management
Discusses a commercial tool but also provides useful guidance. (7:29)

Requirements Patterns

Requirements Engineering Patterns
A discussion of RE patterns by Scott Ambler.

Requirements Engineering Patterns
A brief commentary on RE patterns.

Requirements Engineering Patterns
Free registration is required to obtain this paper.

Requirements Engineering Patterns
An article by Scott Ambler on how to motivate developers to use patterns.

Overview of Requirement Patterns
Contains a few useful diagrams and a chart of patterns along with an anatomy of a requirements pattern.

Requirements Patterns and Antipatterns: Checklists
A brief discussion of verification and correction checklists as they apply to requirements patterns.

pdf: Requirements Patterns for COTS Systems
A reasonably detailed Powerpoint presentation on patterns in general and requirements patterns in particular.

Requirements patterns for embedded systems
A discussion of the structural and behavioral information contained in requirements patterns for embedded systems. Downloadable.

Requirements Patterns via Events / Use Cases
This paper illustrates how event/use case modeling can be used to identify, define and access requirements patterns.

pdf: Extensible Requirements Patterns for Web Application Development
This paper proposes an approach for developing web applications by using extensible requirements patterns.

pdf: A Requirements Patterns-Driven Approach to Specify Systems and Check Properties
This paper describes a requirements patterns-driven approach for developing UML diagrams for embedded systems, where each pattern has a constraints section to specify safety and other invariant properties

Requirements Tools

Requirements Engineering Tools and Freeware
An up-to-date list of RE tools vendors and freeware. Recommended.

Requirements Tools
An extensive list of RE tools.

Requirements management tools-III
An extensive list of RE tools.

Software requirements tools
News, tips and advice about software requirements tools

Calculating ROI on your Investment in Requirements Management Tools
A worthwhile article for those contemplating acquisition of requirements tools. Recommended.

The Problem with Requirements Engineering tools

Automated Requirements Analysis (ARM) tool
A software tool provided by NASA searches each line of the requirements document for specific words and phrases that have been identified as quality indicators. It can be downloaded from this site.

Because it is pivotal to the successful creation of any complex computer-based system, requirements engineering is discussed in a wide array of books. Amg many useful offerings are:

Requirements Engineering
An Introduction to Requirements Engineering
Requirements Engineering
Requirements Engineering
Requirements Engineering and Rapid Development
Requirement Engineering: Processes and Techniques

Requirements Management
discusses a variety of requirement engineering issues that span both systems and software engineering.
The Requirements Engineering Handbook
presents an in depth discussion of requirements engineering tasks.
More About Software Requirements: Thorny Issues and Practical Advice provides many practical techniques for requirements gathering and management.
Software Requirements: Styles and Techniques presents a comprehensive survey of requirement analysis methods and notation.
Software Requirements and
Managing Software Requirements: A Unified Approach presents a useful collection of requirement best practices and suggest pragmatic guidelines for most aspects of the requirements engineering process.
Mastering the Requirement Process
presents a very detailed case study that helps to explain all aspects of the software requirement analysis and the analysis model.
Practical Software Requirements: A Manual of Content and Style discusses a step-by-step approach to requirement analysis and a style guide for those who must develop requirements specifications.
Software Requirements Analysis and Specification: A Lexicon of Practices, Principles and Prejudices presents an intriguing look at the subject from A to Z (literally)
Assertions, Scenarios and Prototypes discusses advanced techniques for developing software requirements.
Software Requirements Using the Unified Process discusses requirement engineering within the context of the Unified process and UML notation.
Writing Better Requirements presents a brief set of guidelines for writing clear requirements, representing them as scenarios, and reviewing the end result.

(Software Requirement Patterns (Best Practices) presents a patterns-based view of requirements engineering.
Analysis Patterns: Reusable Object Models presents a detailed discussion of pattern inrequirement engineering work.

Use-case modeling is often the driver for the creation of all other aspects of the analysis model. The subject is discussed at length in:

Use Case Driven Object Modeling with UML
Succeeding with Use Cases
Use Case Modeling
Writing Effective Use Cases
Advanced Use-Case Modeling: Software Systems
Use Cases: Requirements in Context
Applying Use Cases

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